sábado, 18 de abril de 2009

The Succession of Henry VIII

Edward VI was only nine when he succeeded his father as king of England and supreme head of the English church.

Queen Mary, who was catholic like her mother, married Philip II of Spain, a Catholic, and the English were in violente disturbance.
A few years later Queen Mary died, probably of ovarian cancer, and Elizabeth succeeded her on the throne.The Virgin Queen, Gloriana, under whose reign the English Renaissance came to full bloom, and the arts and literature, especially poetry and theatre, flourished. It was in Queen Elizabeth's reign, the Elizabethan era, that English literature gained its shining stars: Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare. Early Modern literature would likely never have reached the heights it did, had it not been for Queen Elizabeth.

sexta-feira, 17 de abril de 2009

The Children Of Henry VIII

Queen Mary I ( daughter of Catharine of Aragon )
also known as "Bloody Mary" for the number of Protestant executions in her reign.

Queen Elizabeth I ( daughter of Anne Boleyn )
also known as "The Virgin Queen" the strongest and most successful monarch in the history of Britain.

King Edward VI ( son of Jane Seymour ) also known as "The Boy King" did not live very long.

Information Sources: Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th Ed., Vol XIII.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1910. 289.

The Six Wifes of Henry VIII

Queen Catherine of Aragon ( Divorced )
Henry VIII's first wife and Henry's brother Arthur wife before his death. She was a very religious woman.

Queen Anne Boleyn

While married to Catharine, the King fell in love with Anne to the point of obsession, which resulted in his desire to obtain a divorce. She was accused of adultery by her enemies at court and was beheaded.

Queen Jane Seymour

The third wife of Henry VIII. She succeeded in giving birth to an heir to the crown — Prince Edward. She died a few days after childbirth from an infection.

Queen Anne of Cleves

Henry VIII's fourth wife.The King was not attracted to her and the marriage quickly resulted in divorce. Anne stayed in England, however, and remained in good relations with the King and all three of his children, as well as with his future queens.

Queen Catherine Howard
An attractive young lady, she had been pushed into the marriage by her own ambition, as well as the pressure of her powerful family.She started fooling around with young courtiers and was beheaded.

Queen Katherine Parr ( Survived )

King Henry VIII's last wife. A well-educated lady and a excellent writer with a keen intelligence and solid moral fiber. She outlast the intrigues of court, the bad temper of the King, and the general rigors of court life. She was a sweet-tempered, kind person and the children of King Henry VIII loved her.

Information Sources: Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th Ed., Vol XIII.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1910. 289.

quinta-feira, 9 de abril de 2009

The King Henry VIII of England ( 1509-1547 )

Family of Henry VIII 1545 ( Elisabeth on the right )
Unknown artist

Family of Henry VIII, an Allegory of the Tudor Succession 1572
National Museum and Gallery, London
Author: Lucas de Heere

By the beginning of the 16th century there was a current that defended that Roman Church should be reformed. This first happened in England with the rejection of the Pope Clement VII in order to stop the corruption that were frequently succeeding. Meanwhile in Germany a man called Martin Luther was founding a new kind of Christianity based in his interpretation of Bible.
The King Henry VIII (1509-1547) was the first English monarch to be a learner of the renaissance ideas and that was his regent lighting. He became a highly skilled scholar, linguist, musician and athlete. Although he was dissatisfied with the union with Catherine of Aragon ( his brother's widow ) it was completed in the first few months of his reign.
All of his sons had been dying in infancy so it was fairly certain that Henry VIII could have no male heir to the throne while Catherine remained his wife. There was Mary, but no queen regnant had yet ruled in England; he wanted his marriage annulled. All these considerations were intensified by Henry VIII's passion for Anne Boleyn, though she certainly was not the sole or the main cause of the divorce. That the succession was the main point is proved by the fact that Henry's efforts were all directed to securing a wife. As the Catholic Church refuse it, Henry assumed his supremacy over religious questions. He got divorced and implanted the English Church, the Protestantism.

Information Sources: Universal Modern Encyclopedia - Lexicoteca;
Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th Ed.,
Vol XIII.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1910. 289.